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[145] The Lao belong to the Tai linguistic group[146] who began migrating south from China in the first millennium CE. ), number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,251,961 (2018)annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1.53 million (2018) mt-km, total: 82,438 to 3,047 m: 31,524 to 2,437 m: 4914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2021), total: 331,524 to 2,437 m: 2914 to 1,523 m: 9under 914 m: 22 (2021), total: 39,586 km (2009)paved: 5,415 km (2009)unpaved: 34,171 km (2009), 4,600 km (2012) (primarily on the Mekong River and its tributaries; 2,900 additional km are intermittently navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m), Lao People's Armed Forces (LPAF): Lao People's Army (LPA, includes Riverine Force), Air Force, Self-Defense Militia Forces (2022), 0.2% of GDP (2019 est.) )imports: 18,000 metric tons (2020 est. WebFor the history of Laos under the joint Franco-Japanese protectorate, see Laos (Indochinese Union). [81] Debate on the issue escalated quickly. [47][46], In 1968, the PAVN launched a multi-division attack to help the Pathet Lao fight the RLA. Laos financed the remaining 30% with loans from China. WebFor the history of Laos under the joint Franco-Japanese protectorate, see Laos (Indochinese Union). [45] When Japan surrendered, some Lao nationalists (including Prince Phetsarath) declared Laotian independence, but by early-1946, French troops had reoccupied the country and conferred limited autonomy on Laos. [57], Laos is the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia, and it lies mostly between latitudes 14 and 23N (a small area is south of 14), and longitudes 100 and 108E. )$7,800 (2019 est. ", Barclay, Adam and Shrestha, Samjhana (AprilJune 2006). Get the item you ordered or get your money back. Bomb Tonnages Dropped on Laos and Cambodia, and Weighing Their Implications", "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme", Politics in Contemporary Southeast Asia: Authority, Democracy and Political Change, Renovation in Vietnam since 1988 a study in political, economic and social change, "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity", "Mekong Divides Different Worlds In 'Golden Triangle', "Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia", "East Asia/Southeast Asia:: Laos The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency", "Laos promotes PM Thongloun as leader of communist party", "OEC Laos (LAO) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners", "Q+A What is the East Asia Summit all about? )note: the Laos Government officially recognizes 49 ethnic groups, but the total number of ethnic groups is estimated to be well over 200. Have one to sell? Recognised asylum seekers were given resettlement opportunities, while the remaining refugees were to be repatriated under guarantee of safety. )from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est. In response, the United States initiated a bombing campaign against the PAVN positions, supported regular and irregular anti-communist forces in Laos, and supported Army of the Republic of Vietnam incursions into Laos. [141] Laos's progress is notable in comparison to similar developing countries. ), $14.9 billion (31 December 2017 est. His ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day Thai province of Nan in 1373,[31] where he died. note: data are in current year dollars$7.518 billion (2019 est. Laos became a member of ASEAN in 1997 and the WTO in 2013.In the 2010s, the country benefited from direct foreign investment, particularly in the natural resource and industry sectors. In the late 19th century, Luang Prabang was ransacked by the Chinese Black Flag Army. Only 4% of the country is arable land and a mere 0.3% used as permanent crop land,[120] the lowest percentage in the Greater Mekong Subregion. [143], The term "Laotian" does not necessarily refer to the Lao language, ethnic Lao people, language or customs. King Sisavang Vong of Luang Phrabang became ruler of a unified Laos, and Vientiane once again became the capital. [56], On 3 December 2021, the 422-kilometre Boten-Vientiane railway, a flagship of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) was opened. A number of Laotian sign languages are used in areas with high rates of congenital deafness.[46]. ), electrification - total population: 95% (2019)electrification - urban areas: 98% (2019)electrification - rural areas: 93% (2019), installed generating capacity: 9.346 million kW (2020 est. WebHome Steve Test MMIS w/ LogRocket ID. "Effects of AFTA on poverty: Evidence from Laos. In 2009, despite the fact that the government is still officially communist, the Obama administration in the US declared Laos was no longer a MarxistLeninist state and lifted bans on Laotian companies receiving financing from the US Export-Import Bank.[117][118]. ", "Laos Deputy PM Douangchay Phichit dies in plane crash", "Laos plane crash kills defence minister and senior officials", "Lao Defense Chief Among Plane Crash Victims", "Hmong Leader's Vanishing In Laos Reverberates in U.S.", Reports on results of investigations of allegations concerning the welfare of Hmong refugees and asylum seekers in Thailand and Laos, "Refugee Admissions Program for East Asia", "History of the Hmong Resettlement Task Force", Report on the situation in the Xaysomboun Special Zone and 1100 Hmong-Lao refugees who escaped to Petchabun, Thailand during 20042005, Thailand: EU Presidency Declaration on the situation of Hmong refugees, "Hmong refugees facing removal from Thailand", Deportation of Hmong Lao refugees stopped in last minute, Hmong: UNHCR Protests Refugee Deportation, "Somsanga's Secrets | Arbitrary Detention, Physical Abuse, and Suicide inside a Lao Drug Detention Center", "In charts: How the Philippines fares in Southeast Asia", "Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review: Eighth session of the UPR Working Group of the Human Rights Council", "Human Rights Watch Concerns on Laos Submitted in advance of the EU-Laos Human Rights Dialogue October 2015", "Human Rights Abuses in Laos Must be Tackled Now", "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016", "Free former student leaders arbitrarily detained for 17 years", "Amnesty International Report 2016/17: Laos", "Laos, Vietnam troops kill Hmong Christians", "Laos, Vietnam troops kill four Hmong Christians: NGO", "Two teenagers rescued from forced prostitution in Laos", "Chinese marriage proposals become prostitution nightmares for some Lao girls", "Communism and Capitalism Are Mixing in Laos", https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341793965, "Preparing the Cumulative Impact Assessment for the Nam Ngum 3 Hydropower Project: Financed by the Japan Special Fund", "Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Laos", International Food Policy Research Institute, "UN expert: Lao PDR's economic strategy entrenches poverty", Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, European Council On Tourism And Trade Delegation Visit To Laos-World Best Tourist Destination European Council On Tourism And Trade, "The Lao People's Democratic Republic's Vision for Ecotourism", "China's BRI and its High-Speed Railways to Nowhere", "Focales n 8. WebThe Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953. It is a hand-woven silk skirt that can identify the woman who wears it in a variety of ways. [27] Burial jars and other kinds of sepulchers suggest a complex society in which bronze objects appeared around 1500 BC, and iron tools were known from 700 BC. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, Tai-speaking tribes migrated southwestward to the modern territories of Laos and Thailand from Guangxi sometime between the 8th and 10th centuries. ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE) Policy Brief Series, No 7. It briefly gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation but was re-colonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949. It survived until December 1975, when its last king, The mining industry of Laos has received prominent attention with foreign direct investments. WebKingdom-of-laos Definition Meanings Definition Source Filter A former country in Southeast Asia (official name). and Yurnaidi, Z., 2020. A post-independence civil war began, which saw the communist resistance, supported by the Soviet Union, fight against the monarchy that later came under influence of military regimes supported by the United States. The exhibition depicts a complete collection of the stamps and souvenir sheets issued by the Kingdom of Laos from 1951 to 1975 with thematic descriptions emphasize on Lao culture, tradition and history. )percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 10% (2015 est. [citation needed], The Lao government controls all media channels to prevent critique of its actions. Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to Lan Xang, which existed from the 13th century to the 18th century as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. [176][177], Polygamy is officially a crime in Laos, though the penalty is minor. [96][97] In The Economist's Democracy Index 2016 Laos was classified as an "authoritarian regime", ranking lowest of the nine ASEAN nations included in the study. country in Southeast Asia (official name) enwiktionary-2017-09 )spirits: 4.46 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est. WebKingdom 2 To Distant Lands (Harukanaru Daichi E) 2022 135 Pht. [43] Otherwise, according to Martin Stuart-Fox, the Lao might well have lost control over their own country. The Pathet Lao were backed militarily by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong. [153][154] Buddhism has long been one of the most important social forces in Laos. Pakxe has also experienced growth based on cross-border trade with Thailand and Vietnam. ), Laos is a predominantly rural country with a youthful population almost 55% of the population is under the age of 25. Its progress on health and development issues has been uneven geographically, among ethnic groups, and socioeconomically. Laos has made headway in poverty reduction, with the poverty rate almost halving from 46% in 1992/93 to 22% in 2012/13. Nevertheless, pronounced rural-urban disparities persist, and income inequality is rising. Poverty most affects populations in rural and highland areas, particularly ethnic minority groups., The total fertility rate (TFR) has decreased markedly from around 6 births per woman on average in 1990 to approximately 2.8 in 2016, but it is still one of the highest in Southeast Asia. )crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est. The Lao Kingdom was formally proclaimed when the new constitution was promulgated in 1947 as part of the French colonial union, and gained full independence in 1953. [50], In 1975 the Pathet Lao overthrew the royalist government, forcing King Savang Vatthana to abdicate on 2 December 1975. [46], The official and majority language is Lao, a language of the Tai-Kadai language family. [48], Some 80million bombs failed to explode and remain scattered throughout the country, rendering vast swaths of land impossible to cultivate. There is limited external and internal telecommunication, but mobile phones have become widespread. The sinh is a traditional garment worn by Lao women in daily life. Five of them were arrested and subsequently sentenced to up to 10 years imprisonment on charges of treason. [112] Laos is an origin country for sexually trafficked persons. WebWho is the father of Laos? )nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est. While some Hmong people returned to Laos voluntarily, with development assistance from UNHCR, allegations of forced repatriation surfaced. Laos was then dependent on military and economic aid from the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. The rebellion failed, and Vientiane was ransacked. Laos's first expressway, the VientianeBoten Expressway, parallels both Route 13 and the BotenVientiane railway; the first section from Vientiane to Vang Vieng was opened in 2020, with other sections under construction. French is used in government and commerce, and Laos is a member of the French-speaking organisation of La Francophonie. As a low-income country, Laos faces a brain-drain problem as many educated people migrate to developed countries. Additionally, many elite and French-educated Lao immigrated to nations such as the United States and France to escape government persecution. Very few of the Lao refugees, however, were willing to return voluntarily. )investment in inventories: 3.1% (2017 est. Export earnings from international visitors and tourism goods are expected to generate 16% of total exports or US$270.3million in 2010, growing in nominal terms to US$484.2million (12.5% of the total) in 2020. )beer: 3.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est. For example, Khammu farmers in Luang Prabang plant the rice variety khao kam in small quantities near the farm house in memory of dead parents, or at the edge of the rice field to indicate that parents are still alive.[162]. The national basketball team competed at the 2017 Southeast Asian Games where it beat Myanmar in the eighth place game. Kingdom of Laos + Add translation Add Kingdom of Laos "Kingdom of Laos" in English - Finnish dictionary. Between 20,000 and 62,000 Laotians died during the civil war. Buddhist 64.7%, Christian 1.7%, none 31.4%, other/not stated 2.1% (2015 est. The Government [edit | edit source] According to the Franco-Lao treaty of 1953, Laos was an independent country. This includes decreasing the environmental and cultural impact of tourism; increasing awareness in the importance of ethnic groups and biological diversity; providing a source of income to conserve, sustain and manage the Lao protected area network and cultural heritage sites; and emphasizing the need for tourism zoning and management plans for sites that will be developed as ecotourism destinations.[137]. According to the USCommittee for Refugees, he was arrested by Lao security forces and was never seen again. [17][18], The word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, the Lao people. [124] Laos may have the greatest number of rice varieties in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Laos's strategies for development are based on generating electricity from rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand, China and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, as evidenced by the construction of four new railways connecting Laos and neighbours. )municipal solid waste recycled annually: 35,190 tons (2015 est. English, the language of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), has become increasingly studied in recent years. Lan Xang became an important trade centre during Samsenthai's reign, but after his death in 1421 it collapsed into warring factions for nearly a century. An "urban" village is essentially a town.[58]. Laosball, officially the Lao Peoples Democratic Republicball, is a communist countryball located in Southeast Asia. Lao PDR: How to Attract More Investment in Small-Scale Renewable Energy? Sample translated sentence: . [47] Between 1964 and 1973, the US dropped two million tons of bombs on Laos, nearly equal to the 2.1million tons of bombs the US dropped on Europe and Asia during all of World War II, making Laos the most heavily bombed country in history relative to the size of its population; The New York Times notes this was "nearly a ton for every person in Laos". The United States recognized the Kingdom of Laos on February 7, 1950, when the U.S. Department of State made an [164] One of the first commercial feature-length films was Sabaidee Luang Prabang, made in 2008. [122] Rice dominates agriculture, with about 80% of the arable land area used for growing rice. [139]:3940, In 2004 the net primary enrollment rate was 84%. ), total subscriptions: 1.491 million (2020 est. Laos has retained its official commitment to communism and maintains close ties with its two communist neighbors, Vietnam and China, both of which continue to exert substantial political and economic influence on the country. (approximately $120 million)0.2% of GDP (2018 est.) Influences: 12 Oct. 1945 - 24 Apr. )proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est. Between 1995 and 2008 approximately 1,232,900 more people had access to improved sanitation in rural areas. [151] On September 1, 1945, the Kingdom of Laos was confirmed [2] as [12] Its capital and largest city is Vientiane. [185], This article is about the country in Southeast Asia. Laos's first French-written and monarchical constitution was promulgated on 11 May 1947, and declared Laos an independent state within the French Union. ), urban population: 38.2% of total population (2023)rate of urbanization: 2.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est. Additionally, the Khao San Pathet Lao, the country's official news agency, publishes English and French versions of its eponymous paper. [131] In 2019, the UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights conducted an official visit to Laos and found that the country's top-down approach to economic growth and poverty alleviation "is all too often counterproductive, leading to impoverishment and jeopardising the rights of the poor and marginalised. Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement, the ASEAN, East Asia Summit, and La Francophonie. Shortly after, the Kingdom of Champasak and the territory of Vientiane were added to the protectorate. [15][16] Laos has been referred to as one of Southeast Asia and Pacific's fastest growing economies by the World Bank with annual GDP growth averaging 7.4% since 2009. He encouraged a renaissance of Lao fine arts and literature and improved relations with Luang Phrabang. For 300 years Lan Xang had influence reaching into present-day Cambodia and Thailand, as well as over all of what is now Laos. [47], The foreign relations of Laos after the takeover by the Pathet Lao in December 1975 were characterised by a hostile posture toward the West, with the government of the Lao PDR aligning itself with the Soviet Bloc, maintaining close ties with the Soviet Union and depending heavily on the Soviets for most of its foreign assistance. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find anywhere else. Laos gained Normal Trade Relations status with the US in 2004 and applied for Generalized System of Preferences trade benefits in 2013 after being admitted to the World Trade Organization earlier in the year. The close ties between Laos and Vietnam were formalised via a treaty signed in 1977, which has since provided direction for Lao foreign policy, and provides the basis for Vietnamese involvement at all levels of Lao political and economic life. [54][55], The conflict between Hmong rebels and Laos continued in key areas of Laos, including in Saysaboune Closed Military Zone, Xaisamboune Closed Military Zone near Vientiane Province and Xiangkhouang Province. [144], Laos's population was estimated at 7.45million in 2020, dispersed unevenly across the country. The Lao National Tourism Administration, related government agencies and the private sector are working together to realise the vision put forth in the country's National Ecotourism Strategy and Action Plan. The government appears committed to raising the country's profile among foreign investors and has developed special economic zones replete with generous tax incentives, but a limited labor pool, a small domestic market, and corruption remain impediments to investment. 1946. )industrial: 170 million cubic meters (2017 est. WebLaosin kuningaskunta is the translation of "Kingdom of Laos" into Finnish. [109], Laos and Vietnamese (SRV) troops were reported to have raped and killed four Christian Hmong women in Xiangkhouang Province in 2011, according to the US-based non-governmental public policy research organisation The Centre for Public Policy Analysis, which also said other Christian and independent Buddhist and animist believers were being persecuted. The proto-historic period is characterised by contact with Chinese and Indian civilisations. [145], In the central and southern mountains, Mon-Khmer-speaking groups, known as Lao Theung or mid-slope Laotians, predominate. WebProtectorate flag of Kingdom of Laos. In 1950, the French were forced to give Laos semi-autonomy as an "associated state" within the French Union. [46], During the First Indochina War, the Indochinese Communist Party formed the Pathet Lao independence organisation. [79], In 1993, Vue Mai, a former Hmong soldier and leader of the largest Hmong refugee camp in Thailand, who had been recruited by the USEmbassy in Bangkok to return to Laos as proof of the repatriation programme's success, disappeared in Vientiane. ::", "Global Religious Landscape; Table: Religious Composition by Country", "Human Development Report 2009. Major festivals include Lao New Year celebrated around 1315 April and involves a water festival similar but more subdued than that of Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. [135] The European Council on Trade and Tourism awarded the country the "World Best Tourist Destination" designation for 2013 for architecture and history.[136]. ), rice, roots/tubers nes, cassava, sugar cane, vegetables, bananas, maize, watermelons, coffee, taro, mining (copper, tin, gold, gypsum); timber, electric power, agricultural processing, rubber, construction, garments, cement, tourism, agriculture: 73.1%industry: 6.1%services: 20.6% (2012 est. [165] The 2017 documentary feature film Blood Road was predominantly shot and produced in Laos with assistance from the Lao government, it was recognised with a News and Documentary Emmy Award in 2018. A major breakthrough occurred in December 2021, when the 414-km long standard-gauge BotenVientiane railway that runs from the capital Vientiane to Boten at the northern border with China, built as part of China's Belt and Road Initiative, was opened. [125], Laos is rich in mineral resources and imports petroleum and gas. [138] Two new lines connecting with Vietnam, namely the VientianeVng ng and SavannakhetLao Bao railways, are also under planning, in line to meet the Laotian government's vision of becoming a land-linked nation. When he died without an heir, the kingdom split into three principalities. [141] The authorities in Laos have recently developed an innovative regulatory framework for publicprivate partnership contracts signed with small enterprises, in parallel with more conventional regulation of state-owned water enterprises. Hover to zoom. WebThe Kingdom of Laos. ), $7.82 billion (2021 est.) Laos held the chairmanship of ASEAN in 2016. Subsistence agriculture still accounts for half of the GDP and provides 80% of employment. With one-party state status of Laos, the General Secretary (party leader) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government and serves as the supreme leader. Between 1763 and 1769, Burmese armies overran northern Laos and annexed Luang Prabang, while Champasak eventually came under Siamese suzerainty. It is located on Grant Avenue between the path to the JFK memorial and the Tomb of the Unknowns, in Arlington, Virginia, in the United States. [163] The first feature-length film made after the monarchy was abolished is Gun Voice from the Plain of Jars, directed by Somchith Pholsena in 1983, although its release was prevented by a censorship board. )consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est. [169][170] In September 2017, Laos submitted Dearest Sister (Lao: ), Mattie Do's second feature film, to the 90th Academy Awards (or the Oscars) for consideration for Best Foreign Language Film, marking the country's first submission for the Oscars. [citation needed], Massive aerial bombardments against the PAVN/Pathet Lao forces were carried out by the United States to prevent the collapse of the Kingdom of Laos central government, and to deny the use of the Ho Chi Minh Trail to attack US forces in South Vietnam. WebFind the perfect Kingdom Of Laos stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. [178] Polygamy, however, is still customary among some Hmong people. After centuries of gradual decline, Laos came under the domination of Siam (Thailand) from the late 18th century until the late 19th century, when it became part of French Indochina. [66][67] The incumbent head of government is Prime Minister Sonexay Siphandone. [85] Several thousand Hmong people, fearing forced repatriation to Laos if they were not accepted for resettlement in the United States, fled the camp to live elsewhere within Thailand where a sizeable Hmong population has been present since the 19th century. [28], Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang ('million elephants'), which was founded in the 13th century by a Lao prince, Fa Ngum,[29]:223 whose father had his family exiled from the Khmer Empire. [14] It is a one-party socialist republic, espousing MarxismLeninism and governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, under which non-governmental organisations have routinely characterised the country's human rights record as poor, citing repeated abuses such as torture, restrictions on civil liberties and persecution of minorities. )from coal and metallurgical coke: 37.871 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est. ), total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est. Most people live in valleys of the Mekong River and its tributaries. Laos' economy is heavily dependent on capital-intensive natural resource exports. Currently unexploded ordnance (UXO), including cluster munitions and mines, kill or maim approximately 50 Laotians every year. [26] Archaeological evidence suggests an agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennium BC. [75], Some Hmong groups fought as CIA-backed units on the royalist side in the Laotian Civil War. Usually called Laos. )consumption: 5,108,640,000 kWh (2019 est. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}18N 105E / 18N 105E / 18; 105. (approximately $110 million)0.2% of GDP (2017 est.) Now the Lao People's A former country in Southeast Asia (official name). WebThe Kingdom of Laos is a Puppet State of Japan located west of the Imperial State of Vietnam, North of the Kingdom of Cambodia, West of the Kingdom of Siam and South Thailand (invested US$4.489billion) and Vietnam (invested US$3.108billion) are the second and third largest investors respectively. It is a political term that includes the non-ethnic Lao groups within Laos and identifies them as "Laotian" because of their political citizenship. ), fossil fuels: 35.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est. In 1975, the communist Pathet Lao took control of the government, ending a six-century-old monarchy and instituting a strict socialist regime closely aligned to Vietnam. ), conventional long form: Lao People's Democratic Republicconventional short form: Laoslocal long form: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Laolocal short form: Mueang Lao (unofficial)etymology: name means "Land of the Lao [people]", name: Vientiane (Viangchan)geographic coordinates: 17 58 N, 102 36 Etime difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)etymology: the meaning in Pali, a Buddhist liturgical language, is "city of sandalwood", 17 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural) and 1 prefecture* (kampheng nakhon); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamxai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louangnamtha, Louangphabang (Luang Prabang), Oudomxai, Phongsali, Salavan, Savannakhet, Viangchan (Vientiane)*, Viangchan, Xaignabouli, Xaisomboun, Xekong, Xiangkhouang, 19 July 1949 (from France by the Franco-Lao General Convention); 22 October 1953 (Franco-Lao Treaty recognizes full independence), Republic Day (National Day), 2 December (1975), history: previous 1947 (preindependence); latest promulgated 13-15 August 1991amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership and promulgation by the president of the republic; amended 2003, 2015, civil law system similar in form to the French system, has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt, citizenship by birth: nocitizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Laosdual citizenship recognized: noresidency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, chief of state: President THONGLOUN Sisoulit (since 22 March 2021); Vice Presidents PANI Yathotou and BOUNTHONG Chitmani (since 22 March 2021)head of government: Prime Minister PHANKHAM Viphavan (since 22 March 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers CHANSAMON Chan-gnalat, SONXAI Siphandon, KIKEO Khaikhamphithoun (since 22 March 2021); VILAI Lakhamfong, SALEUMXAI Kommasit (since June 2022)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assemblyelections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 March 2021 (next to be held in March 2026); prime minister nominated by the president, elected by the National Assembly for 5-year termelection results: 2021: THONGLOUN Sisoulit (LPRP) elected president; National Assembly vote: 161-1; PANI Yathotou and BOUNTHONG Chitmani (LPRP) elected vice presidents; National Assembly vote NA; PHANKHAM Viphavan (LPRP) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote: 158-32016: BOUNNYANG Vorachit (LPRP) elected president; PHANKHAM Viphavan (LPRP) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA; THONGLOUN Sisoulit (LPRP) elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - NA, description: unicameral National Assembly or Sapha Heng Xat (164 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote from candidate lists provided by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party; members serve 5-year terms)elections: last held on 21 February 2021 (next to be held in 2026)election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LPRP 158, independent 6; composition - men 128, women 36, percent of women 21.9%, highest court(s): People's Supreme Court (consists of the court president and organized into criminal, civil, administrative, commercial, family, and juvenile chambers, each with a vice president and several judges)judge selection and term of office: president of People's Supreme Court appointed by the National Assembly upon the recommendation of the president of the republic for a 5-year term; vice presidents of the People's Supreme Court appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Assembly; appointment of chamber judges NA; tenure of court vice presidents and chamber judges NAsubordinate courts: appellate courts; provincial, municipal, district, and military courts, Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [THONGLOUN Sisoulit]note: other parties proscribed, ADB, ARF, ASEAN, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, chief of mission: Ambassador SisavathINPHACHANH (since 7 June 2022)chancery: 2222 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone: [1] (202) 328-9148; [1] (202) 332-6416FAX: [1] (202) 332-4923email address and website: embasslao@gmail.com; laoemb@verizon.nethttps://laoembassy.com/consulate(s): New York, chief of mission: Ambassador Peter HAYMOND (since 7 February 2020)embassy: Ban Somvang Tai, Thadeua Road, Km 9,Hatsayfong District, Vientianemailing address: 4350 Vientiane Place, Washington DC 20521-4350telephone: [856] 21-48-7000FAX: [856] 21-48-7040email address and website: CONSLAO@state.govhttps://la.usembassy.gov/, three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with a large white disk centered in the blue band; the red bands recall the blood shed for liberation; the blue band represents the Mekong River and prosperity; the white disk symbolizes the full moon against the Mekong River, but also signifies the unity of the people under the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, as well as the country's bright future, elephant; national colors: red, white, blue, name: "Pheng Xat Lao" (Hymn of the Lao People)lyrics/music: SISANA Sisane/THONGDY Sounthonevichitnote: music adopted 1945, lyrics adopted 1975; the anthem's lyrics were changed following the 1975 Communist revolution that overthrew the monarchy, total World Heritage Sites: 3 (all cultural)selected World Heritage Site locales: Town of Luangphrabang; Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements; Megalithic Jar Sites in Xiengkhuang - Plain of Jars. A new constitution was adopted in 1991 and enshrined a "leading role" for the LPRP. [127] Of the potential capacity of approximately 18,000 megawatts, around 8,000 megawatts have been committed for export to Thailand and Vietnam. At the heart of the Indochinese Peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southeast, and Thailand to the west and southwest. )3.32% (2019 est.). In 1996 as the deadline for the closure of Thai refugee camps approached, and under mounting political pressure, the United States agreed to resettle Hmong refugees who passed a new screening process. According to independent non-profit/non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Amnesty International,[104] Human Rights Watch,[105] and Civil Rights Defenders,[106] along with the US State Department,[107] serious human rights violations such as arbitrary detentions, disappearances, free speech restrictions, prison abuses and other violations are an ongoing problem. [129], In 2018, the country ranked 139th on the Human Development Index (HDI), indicating medium development. His reign is often regarded as Laos's golden age. The Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand, where the mountains of the Annamite Range form most of the eastern border with Vietnam and the Luang Prabang Range the northwestern border with the Thai highlands. )wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est. [155] The National University of Laos is the Lao state's public university. The revised constitution of 11 May 1957 omitted reference to the French Union, though close educational, health and technical ties with the former colonial power persisted. ), production: 16.04 million metric tons (2020 est. [144], The people of Laos are often categorised by their distribution by elevation: (lowlands, midlands and upper high lands) as this somewhat correlates with ethnic groupings. Sticky rice is generally preferred over jasmine rice, and sticky rice cultivation and production is thought to have originated in Laos. )$1.393 billion (31 December 2020 est. ), total dependency ratio: 54.7youth dependency ratio: 48elderly dependency ratio: 6.7potential support ratio: 14.8 (2021 est. Under the plan, refugee status was evaluated through a screening process. )solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est. Theravada Buddhism has coexisted peacefully since its introduction to the country with the local polytheism. WebU.S. It is one of the last five communist countryballs Navigate Main page Recent changes Random page Administrators' noticeboard Explore Countryballs Historical Countryballs Userbox icons Community Wiki Discussions Discord 0 / 5 0 lt. An ancient human skull was recovered in 2009 from the Tam Pa Ling Cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos; the skull is at least 46,000 years old, making it the oldest modern human fossil found to date in Southeast Asia. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the communist Pathet Lao came to power, ending the civil war. Theravada Buddhism is a dominant influence in Lao culture. The Laos Government carried out resettlement programs between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s to relocate ethnic minority groups from the rural northern highlands to development areas in the lowlands ostensibly to alleviate poverty, make basic services more accessible, eliminate slash-and-burn agriculture and opium production, integrate ethnic minorities, and control rebel groups (including Hmong insurgents). For many, however, resettlement has exacerbated poverty, led to the loss of livelihoods, and increased food insecurity and mortality rates. As the resettlement programs started to wane in the second half of the 1990s, migration from the northern highlands to urban centers chiefly the capital Vientiane to pursue better jobs in the growing manufacturing and service sectors became the main type of relocation. Migration of villagers from the south seeking work in neighboring Thailand also increased. Thailand is the main international migration destination for Laotians because of the greater availability of jobs and higher pay than at home; nearly a million Laotian migrants were estimated to live in Thailand as of 2015. (approximately $85 million), information is limited and estimates vary; approximately 30,000 active duty troops (26,000 Army; 4,000 Air Force) (2022), the LPAF is armed largely with Soviet-era weapons acquired from the former Soviet Union, Russia, and Vietnam; since 2010, China and Russia have been the leading suppliers of military equipment to Laos (2022), 18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; minimum 18-month service obligation (2022), the LPAFs primary missions are border and internal security, including counterinsurgency and counterterrorismVietnam is the Laotian military's primary security partner, although in recent years, Laos has expanded defense ties with China (2022), Laos-Cambodia: in 2021, the two countries agreed to increase efforts to combat drug trafficking and other transnational crimes and to complete the last 14% of their border demarcation, Laos-Cambodia-Vietnam: Cambodia and Vietnam are concerned about Laos' extensive plans for upstream dam construction and the potential harm it poses to fisheries and farming downstream, Laos-China: concern among Mekong River Commission members that China's construction of eight dams on the Upper Mekong River and construction of more dams on its tributaries will affect water levels, sediment flows, and fisheries, Laos-Thailand: talks continue as of 2018 on completion of demarcation with Thailand but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River, Laos-Vietnam: Laos and Vietnam completed border demarcation in 2016, Bokeo Province part of the Golden Triangle, a notorious drug production and transit area; remains a poppy cultivator and source of illicit opium and a transit hub for other illicit drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and chemical precursors; estimate of 4,925 ha of opium poppy cultivated in Laos in 2018, total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030, Children under the age of 5 years underweight, School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education), International law organization participation, Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income, Household income or consumption by percentage share, Civil aircraft registration country code prefix, Military and security service personnel strengths, Military equipment inventories and acquisitions, Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI). )subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 56 (2020 est. )58.4% of GDP (2016 est. Lao / Laos, Kingdom, 100 Kip, ND (1974), P-16, UNC . ), total: 37.78 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 41.76 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 33.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est. The national carrier is Lao Airlines. [49] Due to the particularly heavy impact of cluster bombs during this war, Laos was a strong advocate of the Convention on Cluster Munitions to ban the weapons and was host to the First Meeting of States Parties to the convention in November 2010. [171], As of 2018, Laos has three theatres dedicated to showing films.[172]. According to the World Bank data conducted in 2014, Laos has met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets on water and sanitation regarding the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme. ), improved: urban: 100% of populationrural: 72% of populationtotal: 82.2% of populationunimproved: urban: 0% of populationrural: 28% of populationtotal: 17.8% of population (2020 est. Laos became independent in 1953, with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. [60] The country is one of four in the opium poppy growing region known as the "Golden Triangle". Etsy Search for items or shops It has failed to qualify for the FIFA World Cup or the AFC Asian Cup, but has participated in minor competitions like the AFC Solidarity Cup and the AFF Championship. WebSearch from Kingdom Of Laos stock photos, pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Although some accusations of forced repatriation were denied,[82] thousands of Hmong people refused to return to Laos. The Kingdom of Laosball was an Indochinese state prior to the foundation of Lao People's Democratic Republicball. There are many traditions and rituals associated with rice production in different environments and among many ethnic groups. Settathirath disappeared in the mountains on his way back from a military expedition into Cambodia, and Lan Xang fell into more than seventy years of instability, involving both Burmese invasion and civil war. Laos can be considered to consist of three geographical areas: north, central, and south. )0.85% (2019 est. Laos produced tin, rubber, and coffee, but never accounted for more than one percent of French Indochina's exports. [155], The adult literacy rate for women in 2017 was 62.9%; for adult men, 78.1%. Other carriers serving the country include Bangkok Airways, Vietnam Airlines, AirAsia, Thai Airways and China Eastern Airlines. In 1960, amidst a series of rebellions in the Kingdom of Laos, fighting broke out between the Royal Lao Army (RLA) and the communist North Vietnamese and Soviet Union-backed Pathet Lao guerillas. )female: 10.3% (2020 est. [101] On 25 September 2009, Laos ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, nine years after signing the treaty. After talks with the UNHCR and the Thai government, Laos agreed to repatriate the 60,000 Lao refugees living in Thailand, including several thousand Hmong people. [113] A number of citizens, primarily women and girls from all ethnic groups and foreigners, have been victims of sex trafficking in Laos. Usually called Laos . France remained in de facto control until 22 October 1953, when Laos gained full independence as a constitutional monarchy. The government of Laos, one of the few remaining one-party communist states, began decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise in 1986. Amongst them, 100,000 Hmongs30% of the entire Hmong populationand 90% of all of Lao intellectuals, specialists, and officials. [citation needed], According to estimates, around 300,000 people fled to Thailand as a consequence of governmental repressions. Laos has nine daily newspapers, 90 magazines, 43 radio stations, and 32 TV stations operating throughout the country. For example, Article 8 makes it clear that Laos is a multinational state and is committed to equality between ethnic groups. The Lao Royals are now based in France, where they work to achieve a change of government in Laos. 6, "Seventy Years of Anarchy", in. The Franco-Siamese Treaty of 1907 defined the current Lao border with Thailand. )imports: 1.345 billion kWh (2019 est. With the end of isolationism in the early 1990s however, the French language rebounded, thanks to the establishment of French, Swiss and Canadian relations and opening of French-language centers in central Laos. The attack resulted in the RLA largely demobilising, leaving the conflict to irregular ethnic Hmong forces of the "Secret Army" backed by the United States and Thailand, and led by General Vang Pao. The mountainous geography of Laos had impeded Laos's ground transportation development throughout the 20th century. [35] Anouvong was taken to Bangkok as a prisoner, where he died. ), forest revenues: 1.48% of GDP (2018 est. Now the Lao People's Democratic Republic . ), women married by age 15: 7.1%women married by age 18: 32.7%men married by age 18: 10.8% (2017 est. Government policies are determined by the party through the eleven-member Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party and the 61-member Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. Gunderson, Steve (18 May 1996) "State Department Outlines Resettlement Guidelines for Hmong Refugees". However, only slightly more than half of the population speaks Lao natively. Vakulchuk, R., Chan, H.Y., Kresnawan, M.R., Merdekawati, M., Overland, I., Sagbakken, H.F., Suryadi, B., Utama, N.A. The khaen traditionally accompanied the singer in mor lam, the dominant style of folk music. Let's say that Thailand, being inspired by Russia's recent moves towards Ukraine, decides that Laos is a fake country that deserves to be reunified with the Thai motherland. Laos used to be a part of Thailand and the Lao and Thai languages are mutually intelligible. So, Thailand decides to invade Laos. Energy Efficiency Retrofitting of Buildings Challenges and Methods", Diller, Anthony; Edmondson, Jerry; Luo, Yongxian (2004). WebThe country was governed as a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953. At the eve of the Vietnam War, the Secret War was beginning in Laos as political factions between communist Pathet Lao and the government occurred. WebKingdom of Laos: The Land of the Million Elephants and of the White Parasol Paperback January 1, 1959 by Rene De Berval (Author) See all formats and editions ), household consumption: 63.7% (2017 est. $58.264 billion (2021 est. Recently, the country has faced a persistent current account deficit, falling foreign currency reserves, and growing public debt. ), lowest 10%: 3.3%highest 10%: 30.3% (2008), revenues: 3.099 billion (2017 est. [58] Laos had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.59/10, ranking it 98th globally out of 172 countries. [139]:8 Songthaews are used in the country for long-distance and local public transport. [152], Sixty-six percent of Laotians were Theravada Buddhist, 1.5 percent Christian, 0.1 percent Muslim, 0.1 percent Jewish, and 32.3 percent were other or traditional (mostly practitioners of Satsana Phi) in 2010. China, for example, provided 70% of the funding for a $5.9 billion, 400-km railway line between the Chinese border and the capital Vientiane, which opened for operations in December 2021. Ratio is 2:3. 0-14 years: 31.25% (male 1,177,297/female 1,149,727)15-24 years: 20.6% (male 763,757/female 770,497)25-54 years: 38.29% (male 1,407,823/female 1,443,774)55-64 years: 5.73% (male 206,977/female 219,833)65 years and over: 4.13% (male 139,665/female 168,046) (2020 est. Pathet Lao held areas used Lao as their sole language and following the end of the Vietnam War, French began its sharp decline in Laos. [98][99] Prominent civil society advocates, human rights defenders, political and religious dissidents, and Hmong refugees have disappeared at the hands of Lao military and security forces. [104] Later reports have contradicted this, claiming they were sentenced to 20 years in prison. "Laos refuses to take back Thai-based Hmong refugees", Smith, Philip, Washington, D.C. (12 December 2014), Kyophilavong, Phouphet, et al. [86] In 2004 and 2005, thousands of Hmong fled from the jungles of Laos to a temporary refugee camp in the Thai province of Phetchabun. eBay Money Back Guarantee. )note: data are in 2017 dollars, 2.53% (2021 est. [126] In addition, the country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. )forest: 67.9% (2018 est. WebThe Kingdom of Laoswas officially proclaimed when the new Constitution was promulgated in 1947, as part of the colonial French Union, and obtained full independence in 1953. ), 63.6% of GDP (2017 est. Today, French has a healthier status in Laos than the other Francophone nations of Asia and about 35% of all students in Laos receive their education in French, with the language being a required course in many schools. [71] In 2005 it attended the inaugural East Asia Summit. For example, Laotian music is dominated by its national musical instrument, the khaen, a type of bamboo mouth organ that has prehistoric origins. [181], Association football is the most popular sport in Laos. [43], During World War II in Laos, Vichy France, Thailand, Imperial Japan and Free France occupied Laos. WebKingdom of Laos - Etsy Check out our kingdom of laos selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops. WebShop for kingdom of laos wall art from the world's greatest living artists. All newspapers are published by the government, including two foreign language papers: the English-language daily Vientiane Times and the French-language weekly Le Rnovateur. )imports of goods and services: -43.2% (2017 est. However, as of 2018, there are approximately 1.9million of Lao's population who could not access an improved water supply and 2.4million people without access to improved sanitation. Recognition of Laotian Independence, 1950. [38] France rescued King Oun Kham and added Luang Phrabang to the protectorate of French Indochina. Laos has the youngest population of any country in Asia with a median age of 21.6 years. Archaeological exploration in Laos has been limited due to rugged and remote topography, a history of twentieth century conflicts which have left over two million tons of unexploded ordnance throughout the country, and local sensitivities to history which involve the Communist government of [166], Australian filmmaker Kim Mordount's first feature film was made in Laos and features a Laotian cast speaking their native language. [182] Its national football team is a member of the Asian Football Confederation and of the ASEAN Football Federation. In 1893, the three territories came under a French protectorate and were united to form what is now known as Laos. Since the founding of the Lao PDR in 1975, very few films have been made in Laos. In 1990 only 8% of the rural population had access to improved sanitation. [100], Ostensibly, the Constitution of Laos that was promulgated in 1991 and amended in 2003 contains most key safeguards for human rights. Din vin: Kanna Hashimoto Kento Yamazaki Ryo Yoshizawa. [62], The climate is mostly tropical savanna and influenced by the monsoon pattern. Fitch rating: CCC (2020)Moody's rating: Caa2 (2020)note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained. [83] Around 5,000 Hmong people who were not resettled at the time of the camp closures sought asylum at Wat Tham Krabok, a Buddhist monastery in central Thailand where more than 10,000 Hmong refugees had already been living. [155] Government expenditure on health is about four percent of GDP,[155] about US$18 (PPP) in 2006. [102][103], However, the government of Laos frequently breaches its own constitution and the rule of law, since the judiciary and judges are appointed by the ruling communist party. [167] One production company's film that has succeeded to produce Lao feature films and gain international recognition is Lao New Wave Cinema's At the Horizon, directed by Anysay Keola, that was screened at the OzAsia Film Festival[168] and Lao Art Media's Chanthaly (Lao: ) directed by Mattie Do, which was screened at the 2013 Fantastic Fest. )5.1% (2020 est. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings that traced back to Khoun Boulom. ), production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est. [72], On 17 May 2014, Defence Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Douangchay Phichit was killed in a plane crash, along with other top ranking officials. Southeastern Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of Vietnam, total: 236,800 sq kmland: 230,800 sq kmwater: 6,000 sq km, about twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly larger than Utah, total: 5,274 kmborder countries (5): Burma 238 km; Cambodia 555 km; China 475 km; Thailand 1,845 km; Vietnam 2,161 km, tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April), mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus, highest point: Phu Bia 2,817 mlowest point: Mekong River 70 mmean elevation: 710 m, timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones, agricultural land: 10.6% (2018 est. [139]:8 Electricity is available to 93% of the population. [184], Laos has no tradition in other team sports. [94] Plans to resettle additional Hmong refugees in the United States were stalled by provisions of President George W. Bush's Patriot Act and Real ID Act, under which Hmong veterans of the Secret War, who fought on the side of the United States, are classified as terrorists because of their historical involvement in armed conflict. Ninety-three percent of households have a telephone, either fixed line or mobile. [25] Stone artefacts including Hoabinhian types have been found at sites dating to the Late Pleistocene in northern Laos. )male: 53.3% (2020 est. [64] A new province, Xaisomboun province, was established on 13 December 2013. )from petroleum and other liquids: 2.855 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est. The organisation estimates that there are 173,800 French speakers in Laos (2010 est.). Wiktionary Advertisement Find Similar Words Find similar words to kingdom-of-laos using the buttons below. ), kips (LAK) per US dollar -9,697.916 (2021 est. Paul Lvy, ''Histoire du Laos'', PUF, 1974. Picture Information. [45] The Japanese attempted to force Sisavang Vong (the King of Luang Phrabang) to declare Laotian independence, but on 8 April he instead simply declared an end to Laos's status as a French protectorate. )refined petroleum consumption: 19,300 bbl/day (2019 est. )agricultural: 7.02 billion cubic meters (2017 est. However, villages far from major roads can be reached only through unpaved roads that may not be accessible year-round. [41] Under French rule, the Vietnamese were encouraged to migrate to Laos, which was seen by the French colonists as a rational solution to a labour shortage within the confines of an Indochina-wide colonial space. Typically, SEZs grant China multi-decade leases to develop the land. In the case of Boten, Laos agreed to a 90-year land-lease deal with China. Also like in Cambodia, such agreements give the impression that Laos is becoming, or is already, a semi-colony of China. In their opposition of the repatriation plans, Democratic and Republican Members of Congress challenged the Clinton administration's position that the government of Laos was not systematically violating Hmong human rights. [149], Hill people and minority cultures of Laos such as the Hmong, Yao (Mien) (Hmong-Mien), Dao, Shan, and several Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples have lived in isolated regions of Laos for many years. [74] Their Russian-built Antonov AN 74-300 with 20 people on board crashed in Xiangkhouang Province. There are some public holidays, festivities and ceremonies in Laos. WikiMatrix In spite of war in this tiny landlocked kingdom of Laos, the angel flying in midheaven keeps the door open for the message of the Kingdom to be sounded. )methane emissions: 9 megatons (2020 est. Modern-day Laos has its roots in the ancient Lao kingdom of Lan Xang, established in the 14th century under King FA NGUM. 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